Macedonian Ruins

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Submitting to Whom? - Romans 13 (Audio Version)

Aside from the organizations that God established—the priesthood in the Old Testament, and the Ekklesia in the New Testament—has he asked us, in Romans 13, to submit to 'secular government'?

Would Paul or any of the other apostles ask us to submit to the secular governments which executed Christians? I think not! Did Jesus demonstrate submission to the secular governments of his day?

Remember that Daniel identified the symbolism of the beast when he associated the four beasts of his vision as the governing authorities of Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. These were not democratically elected governments—the Bible knows nothing of that type of "governing authority." Governments of their days were comprised of those who either seized power (Rome, the Sanhedrin, kings in Jesus’ day) or, as in the case of Israel’s priesthood and early kings, were placed in authority by God.

Today it is increasingly evident that secular governing authorities are again more selected than elected. Programmable voting machines, mail-in ballots, 'creative' counting, and the like, suggest that democracy is a thing of the past. Has a new beast emerged from the waters of time?

Did God command us to submit to the beast of Revelation—the secular governing authority that seizes power in the 'end-times?'

There has to be a better translation/interpretation/exegesis of these verses.

Remember, God tried to discourage Israel from setting up a kingship by warning them of the dire consequences.1 That warning listed ways by which a king would limit their freedoms and take their property. Also, using the writers of the books of Daniel and Revelation, God presents/symbolizes those secular governments as terrible beasts.2

I suggest Peter's words to the governing authorities of his day would violate Romans 13 if what we read in our modern translations is accurate:

But Peter and John answered and said to them, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to give heed to you rather than to God, you be the judge; for we cannot stop speaking about what we have seen and heard." (Acts 4:19-20 NASB unless noted)

So too, of Jesus, repeatedly disobeyed the authorities' rules by healing on the Sabbath, among other things.

Throughout the early years, it was secular governments that persecuted Christians. Even today, in governments allegedly elected by the people to serve people, we see prayer removed from our schools, marriages perverted, and limits placed on what we are permitted to call sin. These governments, supposedly elected to serve the people are serving to benefit the bankers and large corporations at the expense of the people—and we’ve done little to oppose it. Why? Was it because we were led to believe that "good" Christians are to live in subjection to “governing authorities”? Is this not a conflict between which master we serve? To submit to government is to surrender our God-given unalienable rights. Too many of those rights have already been given up to a government, which by law should be our public servant, not our superior.

In that light, we need to examine the opening verses of Romans 13 which appear, especially in the modern versions, to direct us to submit to governing authorities.

Please know that I hold all scripture as God-inspired and as the final authority in my life—in its original form and language.

Romans 13

Every person is to be in subjection to the governing authorities. (Romans 13:1 NASB - 1995)3

Let every soul be in subjection to the higher powers. (Romans 13:1 ASV - 1901)4

Let every soul be subject to the authorities that are above him. (Romans 13:1 DARBY - 1890)5

Most twentieth-century versions have interpreted—not translated—the Greek words (huperecho exousia) as “governing authorities” while those of older origin, such as King James (1611), American Standard (1901), Bishop’s (1595), Geneva (1599), Darby (1890), Tyndale (1534), Webster’s (1833), carry the literal translation of these words as “higher powers.”6 (see a more extensive list in The Evolution of Roman 13:1 Translation).

Why did this change from translation to interpretation in the newer versions? Was the change a matter of accuracy or influence over the translators to control the readers? One of the planned actions of the New World Order7 is to, "Changing The Bible Through Revisions Of Key Words" This change, in modern versions and revisions, would certainly hamper every ‘good Christian’ from ever thinking of opposing a government that advocates abortion, homosexuality, or reduced rights.

The word governing in the NASB is the Greek word huperecho, which means “to hold above, to rise above, to be superior.8

The Greek word exousia, interpreted as authorities in the NASB, means "power to act, authority."9

Discussion has been ongoing on whether the term exousia refers to human or spiritual authority.10 I believe that the adjective higher was used by Paul to distinguish this exousia from that which is strictly human as its source of empowerment.

It is to those in higher lawful authority to which all souls are to be subject. The point of conflict comes when people associate the word "governing" with "secular government." The context of this verse has no connection to secular government. A maxim of law states, “The power which is derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.” This means that a government elected by the people and gets its power or authority to govern from those people, can never have greater power or authority than those same people possess—always less. That means that an elected, lawful, government must be in subjection to the will of those people and behave as 'public servants'.

Is It Idolatry?

We know that idolatry is an abomination to the Lord.

Do not make idols or set up an image or a sacred stone for yourselves, and do not place a carved stone in your land to bow down before it. I am the LORD your God. Leviticus. 26:1

Does God’s abhorrence of idolatry include the act of making ourselves subservient to a thing we created? A secular government is an entity that we created. We have come to expect it to take care of us from cradle to grave. As an entity of our creation, it differs from the governing authorities that Jesus selects and establishes over the people he has called out of the world to assemble as his kingdom.

Scriptural Congruency

Not only must the translator consider the context of those verses, but their translation must be congruent, or in agreement, with the rest of scripture and the character of God. If we are to live in submission to secular governing authorities then Jesus and others in scripture must act accordingly—but they do not. Jesus was often at odds with governing authorities when healing on the Sabbath, instructing others to carry their beds on the Sabbath, eating without washing hands, etc. Daniel prayed to God in direct disobedience to secular governing authorities. The apostles disobeyed them and continued to preach Jesus.

'Secular Government' cannot be a proper interpretation of Paul's words in these verses, but what was his intention?

Context is King

According to established principles of translation, the context in which a verse or verses are used must be considered. Verses, and the interpretation of words, taken out of context are a pretext or guarantee of error. These verses, purported to speak of submission to secular government, are sandwiched between sections that pertain to loving our neighbours within the sphere of life in the body of Christ. This very fact raises a concern. Using a sampling of the context, we find:

“Be devoted to one another in brotherly love…” (Romans 12:10)

“Every person should obey the government in power…” (Romans 13:1 GWN11)

“Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another…” (Romans 13:8)

Read Romans 12, 13, and 14 in a modern version of the Bible now, without chapter or verse breaks, and note the sudden change in theme for Romans 13:1-7.

Why a change in direction toward an external authority figure like secular government and then, just as suddenly, back to loving our neighbours? Is it valid? Does it fit Paul’s intent and flow? I think not. I believe that Paul is referring to the change of human authority that God established within the Body of Christ.

The following is the Literal Standard Version:

Romans 13:1-8 (LSV) Let every soul be subject to the higher authorities, for there is no authority except from God, and the authorities existing are appointed by God, so that he who is setting himself against the authority, has resisted against God’s ordinance; and those resisting will receive judgment to themselves. For those ruling are not a terror to the good works, but to the evil; and do you wish to not be afraid of the authority? Be doing that which is good, and you will have praise from it, for it is a servant of God to you for good; and if you may do that which is evil, be fearing, for it does not bear the sword in vain; for it is a servant of God, an avenger for wrath to him who is doing that which is evil. For this reason it is necessary to be subject, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience, for because of this you also pay tribute; for they are servants of God, on this very thing attending continually; render, therefore, to all [their] dues; to whom tribute, the tribute; to whom custom, the custom; to whom fear, the fear; to whom honor, the honor. To no one owe anything, except to love one another

With this in mind let me rewrite Romans 13:1-8 as an illustration of how I think it should be understood:

Everyone, within the body of Christ, must submit to those that God has placed in authority over them, for there is no authority apart from God, set in place by God. So then, to oppose those over you is to oppose God's command, and by opposing them you bring judgment on yourselves, in the same way as secular rulers are not terrors to good conduct, but to that which is bad. Do you want to be unafraid of those in authority over you? Do good and you will have their approval. They are God's servants for good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, because they have authority for good reasons. As they are God's servants, bringing wrath on those who do wrong. Therefore, you must submit, not only because of potential wrath but also because of your conscience. You already contribute to those who minister to God, devoting themselves to serving you.  Therefore, give to all people what you owe them: respect to those due that respect; end relationships that need to end; reverence those who should be revered; honour those due the honour. Do not owe anyone anything, except to love one another, for the one who loves another has fulfilled that law.   

These sections of scripture now fit and flow together since there is no interruption to Paul's focus on human interactions within the Body of Christ.

The death of Paul, and probably all the disciples, came at the hand of government authorities. The University of Hawaii’s study determined that since 1900 secular governments have been responsible for the murder of 262 million people. If you haven’t already determined that our modern governments are pathological liars you are wasting your time reading this.

Jesus warned us that we would be hated simply for loving people, truth, and following Jesus.

If the world hates you, you know that it has hated Me before it hated you. If you were of the world, the world would love its own; but because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, because of this the world hates you. (John 15:18-19)


Paul, in Romans 13:1-7, is not admonishing us to submit to secular/ungodly government. He is teaching how important it is to be in submission to those God has placed in levels of authority within the body of Christ and the principle that those anointed by God to positions of authority act as God’s administrators, tools, used by Him to encourage us to good behaviour.12

Keeping in mind that the body of Christ is not a democracy, those in true authority are those whom God has appointed and anointed into positions of authority, not those elected by a majority. Confusing this principle is dangerous (read Spiritual Authority).

Jesus told the disciples, and specifically Peter that, “I will build My [ekklesia]; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it.

We get the fuller meaning of what the Greek word ‘ekklesia’ means in Acts 19. Here we are given an illustration of the meaning when the Ephesians were “filled with the confusion, and they rushed with one accord into the theatre, dragging along Gaius and Aristarchus, Paul’s traveling companions from Macedonia. And when Paul wanted to go into the [ekklesia], the disciples would not let him.” (ekklesia is the Greek word where inserted in both accounts. Read my article The Mysterious Word Church)

The people here met to legislate a response to what they were told was Paul’s slander of one of their gods.

From this account, we learn that an Ekklesia is a body of people assembled to govern. We, the body of Christ are His governors in the affairs of this planet.

Ideally, in democracies, secular governments are comprised of people who promised to work for us if we elected them into office. We employ them to work for us. They submit to us. We don’t ask them to do this or that, we order them. How did we come to the place of obeying our (public) servants?

Today, governments are (s)elected by corporations and Luciferian globalists. These globalists select people whom they can control because they are morally or ethically compromised—puppets. Once in position, these governments act in the interests of those who placed them in office, i.e. granting them control, profit, and money collected from the people's labour. Those in these governments are pathological liars. Everything they posit is designed to defraud the people and benefit their interests.

Until we, the people, realize that almost everything coming from the secular government, their agencies, and licenced organizations is a lie, we cannot be free.

Behold, I will cause those of the synagogue of Satan, who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie—I will make them come and bow down at your feet, and make them know that I have loved you. Revelation 3:9

Does God want us to live in subjection to them? Absolutely not.

Our God-given rights and freedoms are being abused.

I suggest that we, as the body of Christ, use our authority to govern and to direct and correct secular government.

Ask Father to:

Remove those people who harbour evil intent from positions of authority in secular government, to curse the finances of the bankers and corporations who act to undermine the rights, freedoms, property, and patrimony of mankind, to work repentance in the heart of those who are not fully given to evil and encourage them to publicly confess their wrongdoings.

Our prayers are effective.


1. 1 Samuel 8

2. Daniel 7, Revelation 13

3. NASB - The New American Standard Bible (NAS [1977] and [1995]). Copyright © 1986, both by The Lockman Foundation.  All rights reserved.

4. ASV - American Standard Version 1901

5. DBY - The English Darby Bible 1884/1890 (DBY), a literal translation by John Nelson Darby (1800-1882)

6. This modern twist would play into the hands of those pushing for the New World Order by compelling any real Christians to submit to those who are supposed to be our servants.


8. Strong’s Concordance

9. Strong’s Concordance

10. Bauer, Walter, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Second Edition. Copyright © 1957, 1979. The University of Chicago Press. pg. 278

11. GOD'S WORD® translation.  Copyrighted © 1995 by God's Word to the Nations.

12. I suggest you read “Fathered by God” by this author for more on this matter.

©2013, Dr Steven Bydeley, a man.

All publishing rights reserved. Permission is herewith granted to reprint this article for personal use and to link or refer to it; however, no commercial re-publishing of the material in this article is permitted without prior written consent.

Steven is the author of Fathered by God and with his wife Dianne, co-author of Dream Dreams and Dreams the Heal and Counsel. He has been a guest on the Miracle Channel, Trinity Television, and Crossroads Communication, and has taught internationally on various topics.

Without Prejudice. © 2023, Steven., house of bij de Leij., of man.